UPSC ESE Selection Process 2021:
The examination shall be conducted according to the following plan:
- Stage‐I:Engineering Services (Preliminary/Stage‐I) Examination (Objective Type Papers) for the selection of candidates for the Stage‐II: Engineering Services (Main/Stage‐II) Examination;
- Stage‐II: Engineering Services (Main/Stage‐II) Examination (Conventional Type Papers) and
- Stage‐III: Personality Test.
UPSC ESE Exam Pattern 2021:
- The Engineering Services (Preliminary/Stage‐I) Examination will consist of two objective type (multiple choices) questions papers and carrying a maximum of 500 marks (Paper 1 – 200 Marks & Paper II – 300 Marks).
- Only those candidates who are declared by the Commission to have qualified in the Preliminary/Stage‐I Examination in the year will be eligible for admission to the Main/Stage‐II Examination of that year provided they are otherwise eligible for admission to the Main/Stage‐ II
- The Marks obtained in Preliminary/Stage‐I Examination by the candidates who are declared qualified for admission to the Main/Stage‐II Examination will be counted for determining their final order of
- The number of candidates to be admitted to the Main/Stage‐II Examination will be about six to seven time the total approximate number of vacancies to be filled in the year through this examination.
- Stage‐I (Preliminary/Stage‐I) Examination:‐
The Examination shall comprise of two papers.
- Stage‐II (Main/Stage‐II) Examination:‐
UPSC ESE 2022 Syllabus:
Note: The paper in General Studies and Engineering Aptitude will include Knowledge of relevant topics as may be expected from an engineering graduate, without special study. Questions from all the 10 topics mentioned above shall be set. Marks for each Topic may range from 5% to 15% of the total marks in the paper.
Civil Engineering: Paper 1
Stone, Lime, Glass, Plastics, Steel, FRP, Ceramics, Aluminum, Fly Ash, Basic Admixtures, Timber, Bricks and Aggregates: Classification, properties and selection criteria; Cement: Types, Composition, Properties, Uses, Specifications and various Tests; Lime & Cement Mortars and Concrete: Properties and various Tests; Design of Concrete Mixes: Proportioning of aggregates and methods of mix design.
Solid Mechanics: Elastic constants, Stress, plane stress, Strains, plane strain, Mohr’s circle of stress and strain, Elastic theories of failure, Principal Stresses, Bending, Shear and Torsion.
Structural Analysis: Basics of strength of materials, Types of stresses and strais, Bending moments and shear force, concept of bending and shear stresses; Analysis of determinate and indeterminate structures; Trusses, beams, plane frames; Rolling loads, Influence Lines, Unit load method & other methods; Free and Forced vibrations of single degree and multi degree freedom system; Suspended Cables; Concepts and use of Computer Aided Design.
Design of Steel Structures: Principles of Working Stress methods, Design of tension and compression members, Design of beams and beam column connections, built‐up sections, Girders, Industrial roofs, Principles of Ultimate load design.
Design of Concrete and Masonry structures: Limit state design for bending, shear, axial compression and combined forces; Design of beams, Slabs, Lintels, Foundations, Retaining walls, Tanks, Staircases; Principles of pre‐stressed concrete design including materials and methods ; Earthquake resistant design of structures; Design of Masonry Structure.
Construction Practice, Planning and Management: Construction ‐ Planning, Equipment, Site investigation and Management including Estimation with latest project management tools and network analysis for different Types of works; Analysis of Rates of various types of works; Tendering Process and Contract Management, Quality Control, Productivity, Operation Cost; Land acquisition; Labour safety and welfare.
PAPER – II
Flow of Fluids, Hydraulic Machines and Hydro Power:
(a) Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow, Pipe Flow:
Fluid properties; Dimensional Analysis and Modeling; Fluid dynamics including flow kinematics and measurements; Flow net; Viscosity, Boundary layer and control, Drag, Lift, Principles in open channel flow, Flow controls. Hydraulic jump; Surges; Pipe networks.
(b) Hydraulic Machines and Hydro power ‐ Various pumps, Air vessels, Hydraulic turbines – types, classifications & performance parameters; Power house – classification and layout, storage, pondage, control of supply.
Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering: Hydrological cycle, Ground water hydrology, Well hydrology and related data analysis; Streams and their gauging; River.morphology; Flood, drought and their management; Capacity of Reservoirs. Water Resources Engineering : Multipurpose uses of Water, River basins and their potential; Irrigation systems, water demand assessment; Resources ‐ storages and their yields; Water logging, canal and drainage design, Gravity dams, falls, weirs, Energy dissipaters, barrage Distribution works, Cross drainage works and head‐works and their design; Concepts in canal design, construction & maintenance; River training, measurement and analysis of rainfall.
Water Supply Engineering: Sources, Estimation, quality standards and testing of water and their treatment; Rural, Institutional and industrial water supply; Physical, chemical and biological characteristics and sources of water, Pollutants in water and its effects, Estimation of water demand; Drinking water Standards, Water Treatment Plants, Water distribution networks.
Waste Water Engineering: Planning & design of domestic waste water, sewage collection and disposal; Plumbing Systems. Components and layout of sewerage system; Planning & design of Domestic Waste‐water disposal system; Sludge management including treatment, disposal and re‐use of treated effluents; Industrial waste waters and Effluent Treatment Plants including institutional and industrial sewage management.
Solid Waste Management: Sources & classification of solid wastes along with planning & design of its management system; Disposal system, Beneficial aspects of wastes and Utilization by Civil Engineers
Air, Noise pollution and Ecology: Concepts & general methodology.
Geo-technical Engineering and Foundation Engineering:
(a) Geo‐technical Engineering: Soil exploration ‐ planning & methods, Properties of soil, classification, various tests and inter‐relationships; Permeability & Seepage, Compressibility, consolidation and Shearing resistance, Earth pressure theories and stress distribution in soil; Properties and uses of geo‐synthetics.
(b) Foundation Engineering: Types of foundations & selection criteria, bearing capacity, settlement analysis, design and testing of shallow & deep foundations; Slope stability analysis, Earthen embankments, Dams and Earth retaining structures: types, analysis and design , Principles of ground modifications.
Surveying and Geology:
(a) Surveying: Classification of surveys, various methodologies, instruments & analysis of measurement of distances, elevation and directions; Field astronomy, Global Positioning System; Map preparation; Photogrammetry; Remote sensing concepts; Survey Layout for culverts, canals, bridges, road/railway alignment and buildings, Setting out of Curves.
(b)Geology: Basic knowledge of Engineering geology & its application in projects.
- Highways ‐Planning & construction methodology, Alignment and geometric design; Traffic Surveys and Controls; Principles of Flexible and Rigid pavements design.
- Tunneling ‐Alignment, methods of construction, disposal of muck, drainage, lighting and ventilation.
- Railways Systems Terminology, Planning, designs and maintenance practices; track modernization.
- Harbours Terminology, layouts and planning.
- Airports –Layout, planning & design.
PAPER – I
Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids, Manometry, Fluid Statics, Buoyancy, Equations of Motion, Bernoulli’s equation and applications, Viscous flow of incompressible fluids, Laminar and Turbulent flows, Flow through pipes and head losses in pipes.
- Thermodynamics and Heat transfer: Thermodynamic systems and processes; properties of pure substance; Zeroth, First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics; Entropy, Irreversibility and availability; analysis of thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion: Rankine, Otto, Diesel and Dual Cycles; ideal and real gases; compressibility factor; Gas mixtures. Modes of heat transfer, Steady and unsteady heat conduction, Thermal resistance, Fins, Free and forced convection, Correlations for convective heat transfer, Radiative heat transfer – Radiation heat transfer co‐ efficient; boiling and condensation, Heat exchanger performance analysis.
- IC Engines, Refrigeration and Air conditioning:SI and CI Engines, Engine Systems and Components, Performance characteristics and testing of IC Engines; Fuels; Emissions and Emission Control. Vapour compression refrigeration, Refrigerants and Working cycles, Compressors, Condensers, Evaporators and Expansion devices, Other types of refrigeration systems like Vapour Absorption, Vapour jet, thermo electric and Vortex tube refrigeration. Psychometric properties and processes, Comfort chart, Comfort and industrial air conditioning, Load calculations and Heat pumps.
- Turbo Machinery: Reciprocating and Rotary pumps, Pelton wheel, Kaplan and Francis Turbines, velocity diagrams, Impulse and Reaction principles, Steam and Gas Turbines, Theory of Jet Propulsion – Pulse jet and Ram Jet Engines, Reciprocating and Rotary Compressors – Theory and Applications.
- Power Plant Engineering:Rankine and Brayton cycles with regeneration and reheat, Fuels and their properties, Flue gas analysis, Boilers, steam turbines and other power plant components like condensers, air ejectors, electrostatic precipitators and cooling towers – their theory and design, types and applications;
- Renewable Sources of Energy: Solar Radiation, Solar Thermal Energy collection ‐ Flat Plate and focusing collectors their materials and performance. Solar Thermal Energy Storage, Applications – heating, cooling and Power Generation; Solar Photovoltaic Conversion; Harnessing of Wind Energy, Bio‐mass and Tidal Energy –Methods and Applications, Working principles of Fuel Cells.
PAPER – II
- Engineering Mechanics:Analysis of System of Forces, Friction, Centroid and Centre of Gravity, Dynamics; Stresses and Strains‐Compound Stresses and Strains, Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagrams, Theory of Bending Stresses‐Slope and deflection‐Torsion, Thin and thick Cylinders, Spheres.
- Engineering Materials:Basic Crystallography, Alloys and Phase diagrams, Heat Treatment, Ferrous and Non Ferrous Metals, Non metallic materials, Basics of Nano‐materials, Mechanical Properties and Testing, Corrosion prevention and control .
- Mechanisms and Machines: Types of Kinematics Pair, Mobility, Inversions, Kinematic Analysis, Velocity and Acceleration Analysis of Planar Mechanisms, CAMs with uniform acceleration and retardation, cycloidal motion, oscillating followers; Vibrations –Free and forced vibration of undamped and damped SDOF systems, Transmissibility Ratio, Vibration Isolation, Critical Speed of Shafts. Gears – Geometry of tooth profiles, Law of gearing, Involute profile, Interference, Helical, Spiral and Worm Gears, Gear Trains‐Simple, compound and Epicyclic; Dynamic Analysis – Slider – crank mechanisms, turning moment computations, balancing of Revolving & Reciprocating masses, Gyroscopes –Effect of Gyroscopic couple on automobiles, ships and aircrafts, Governors.
- Design of Machine Elements: Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the S‐N diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as riveted, welded and bolted joints. Shafts, Spur gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, Brakes and clutches, flywheels.
- Manufacturing ,Industrial and Maintenance Engineering:Metal casting‐Metal forming, Metal Joining, Machining and machine tool operations, Limits, fits and tolerances, Metrology and inspection, computer Integrated manufacturing, FMS, Production planning and Control, Inventory control and operations research ‐ CPM‐PERT. Failure concepts and characteristics‐Reliability, Failure analysis, Machine Vibration, Data acquisition, Fault Detection, Vibration Monitoring, Field Balancing of Rotors, Noise Monitoring, Wear and Debris Analysis, Signature Analysis, NDT Techniques in Condition Monitoring.
- Mechatronics and Robotics:
Microprocessors and Microcontrollers: Architecture, programming, I/O, Computer interfacing, Programmable logic controller. Sensors and actuators, Piezoelectric accelerometer, Hall effect sensor, Optical Encoder, Resolver, Inductosyn, Pneumatic and Hydraulic actuators, stepper motor, Control Systems‐ Mathematical modeling of Physical systems, control signals, controllability and observability. Robotics, Robot Classification, Robot Specification, notation; Direct and Inverse Kinematics; Homogeneous Coordinates and Arm Equation of four Axis SCARA Robot.
PAPER – I
Engineering Mathematics Matrix theory, Eigen values & Eigen vectors, system of linear equations, Numerical methods for solution of non‐linear algebraic equations and differential equations, integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, Line, Surface and Volume Integrals. Fourier series, linear, non‐linear and partial differential equations, initial and boundary value problems, complex variables, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem, probability and statistics fundamentals, Sampling theorem, random variables, Normal and Poisson distributions, correlation and regression analysis.
- Electrical Materials
Electrical Engineering Materials, crystal structures and defects, ceramic materials, insulating materials, magnetic materials – basics, properties and applications; ferrites, ferro‐magnetic materials and components; basics of solid state physics, conductors; Photo‐conductivity; Basics of Nano materials and Superconductors.
- Electric Circuits and Fields Circuit elements, network graph, KCL, KVL, Node and Mesh analysis, ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin’s, Norton’s, Superposition and Maximum Power Transfer theorems, transient response of DC and AC networks, Sinusoidal steady state analysis, basic filter concepts, two‐port networks, three phase circuits, Magnetically coupled circuits, Gauss Theorem, electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Ampere’s and Biot‐ Savart’s laws; inductance, dielectrics, capacitance; Maxwell’s equations.
- Electrical and Electronic Measurements: Principles of measurement, accuracy, precision and standards; Bridges and potentiometers; moving coil, moving iron, dynamometer and induction type instruments, measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor, instrument transformers, digital voltmeters and multi‐meters, phase, time and frequency measurement, Q‐meters, oscilloscopes, potentiometric recorders, error analysis, Basics of sensors, Transducers, basics of data acquisition systems .
- Computer Fundamentals: Number systems, Boolean algebra, arithmetic functions, Basic Architecture, Central Processing Unit, I/O and Memory Organisation; peripheral devices, data represenation and programming, basics of Operating system and networking, virtual memory, file systems; Elements of programming languages, typical examples.
- Basic Electronics Engineering: Basics of Semiconductor diodes and transistors and characteristics, Junction and field effect transistors (BJT, FET and MOSFETS), different types of transistor amplifiers, equivalent circuits and frequency response; oscillators and other circuits, feedback amplifiers.
PAPER – II
Analog and Digital Electronics: Operational amplifiers –characteristics and applications, combinational and sequential logic circuits, multiplexers, multi‐ vibrators, sample and hold circuits, A/Dand D/A converters, basics of filter circuits and applications, simple active filters; Microprocessor basics‐ interfaces and applications, basics of linear integrated circuits; Analog communication basics, Modulation and de‐modulation, noise and bandwidth, transmitters and receivers, signal to noise ratio, digital communication basics, sampling, quantizing, coding, frequency and time domain multiplexing, power line carrier communication systems.
Systems and Signal Processing : Representation of continuous and discrete‐timesignals, shifting and scaling operations, linear, time‐invariant and causal systems, Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals, sampling theorem, Fourier and Laplace transforms, Z transforms, Discrete Fourier transform, FFT, linear convolution, discrete cosine transform, FIR filter, IIR filter, bilinear transformation.
Control Systems: Principles of feedback, transfer function, block diagrams and signal flow graphs, steady‐state errors, transforms and their applications; Routh‐hurwitz criterion, Nyquist techniques, Bode plots, root loci, lag, lead and lead‐lag compensation, stability analysis,transient and frequency response analysis, state space model, state transition matrix, controllability and observability , linear state variable feedback, PID and industrial controllers.
Electrical Machines : Single phase transformers, three phase transformers ‐ connections, parallel operation, auto‐transformer, energy conversion principles, DC machines ‐ types, windings, generator characteristics, armature reaction and commutation, starting and speed control of motors, Induction motors ‐ principles, types, performance characteristics, starting and speed control, Synchronous machines ‐ performance, regulation, parallel operation of generators, motor starting, characteristics and applications, servo and stepper motors.
Power Systems : Basic power generation concepts, steam, gas and water turbines, transmission line models and performance, cable performance, insulation, corona and radio interference, power factor correction, symmetrical components, fault analysis, principles of protection systems, basics of solid state relays and digital protection; Circuit breakers, Radial and ring‐main distribution systems, Matrix representation of power systems, load flow analysis, voltage control and economic operation, System stability concepts, Swing curves and equal area criterion. HVDC transmission and FACTS concepts, Concepts of power system dynamics, distributed generation, solar and wind power, smart grid concepts, environmental implications, fundamentals of power economics.
Power Electronics and Drives : Semiconductor power diodes, transistors, thyristors, triacs, GTOs, MOSFETs and IGBTs ‐ static characteristics and principles of operation, triggering circuits, phase control rectifiers, bridge converters ‐ fully controlled and half controlled, principles of choppers and inverters, basis concepts of adjustable speed DC and AC drives, DC‐DC switched mode converters, DC‐AC switched mode converters, resonant converters, high frequency inductors and transformers, power supplies.